How To Start Sugarcane?
Sugarcane is called in English. From which sugar, good, wine, etc. are made. Sugarcane is a major cash crop in India. India ranks second in the production of sugarcane worldwide.
How To Start Sugarcane Plantation?
Sugarcane scientific name –
- Family: Gramineae
- Botanical Name: Saccharum officinarum
Uttar Pradesh ranks first in sugarcane production in India. Uttar Pradesh alone produces about 55 percent of the total sugarcane production in India. Location of sugarcane production in 10 states is as follows –
Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Haryana, Punjab, Uttarakhand.
Major varieties of sugarcane
Many varieties of sugarcane are found in India, whose yield is very good and the quality of sugarcane is also good. The sugarcane variety is as follows –CoS.687, CoPant.84211, CoJ.64, CoLk.8001, Co.1148, CoS.767, CoS.802, CoC.671, CoC.85061, Co.8021, Co.6304, Co.1148, CoJ. 79, CoS.767, Co.740, CoM.7125, Co.7527, CoC.671, Co.740, Co.8014, Co.7804, Co.740, Co.8338, Co.6806, Co.6304, Co.7527, Co.6907, Co.7805, Co.7219, Co.7805, Co.8011
All these sugarcane varieties have been prepared in such a way that they can withstand any kind of situation.
Land for sugarcane cultivation
Loam soil is considered best for sugarcane cultivation. Sugarcane cultivation should be done on such land where there is no water. Before starting sugarcane cultivation, you can also get the soil tested because acidic or alkaline soil is not good for sugarcane. Before starting sugarcane cultivation, you should plow the soil 3 to 4 times to invert the soil of your field.
Before sowing sugarcane, there are many other termites in the ground which also cause damage to the crop, that is why spraying of medicines is done to eliminate them first. There are many types of insects also on sugarcane seeds, this medicine is also sprayed for their prevention.
The best time for sugarcane sowing is in the months of October to November. Sugarcane production is very good at this time. Sugarcane is also sown in February and March.
Fertilizer should be applied to the soil based on the examination of the soil of the field. For sugarcane, 150-180 kg nitrogen, 60 kg phosphorus, 40 kg potash, 25 kg zinc sulfate and 20 kg ferrous. Use sulfate per hectare. By applying all these fertilizers at the time of sowing, the fertilizer capacity of the soil will be good and sugarcane yield will also be good. With this, you can also add biofertilizers such as – culture increasing the availability of Azotobacter ire phosphorus should be added at the time of sowing.
For sugarcane seeds, one should do about three parts in sugarcane. Germination is better in the top part of sugarcane, so use the upper part more. Before sowing the sugarcane seed, it is very important to get rid of the disease, so that the germination of the sugarcane is good.
Before sowing sugarcane, the field should be well manured, drains 20 cm deep should be made with the help of risers at a distance of 75 cm in the spring and 90 cm in the autumn season. After this, sugarcane pieces should be put in these drains and also sprayed with some fertilizer and medicines for termites such as pests. After this, the drain should be closed by covering the pieces of sugarcane with soil. Even after sowing, if there is an infestation of termites, take advice from an expert.
In the plains, in the autumn-sown crop, 7 irrigation should be done at least before the rainy season and 2 irrigations after the rainy season. In the spring crop, 6 irrigations should be done, of which 4 should be done before the rain and 2 after the irrigation. When the sugarcane buds start coming out, irrigation must be done at that time. In Terai areas, irrigation is sufficient only before 2-3 drops of rain and after irrigation one irrigated.
Weeds can be controlled by making at least three hives at 25-30 days after sowing sugarcane. Some chemicals are also used to control the weed. Immediately after sowing sugarcane, spray 2 kg of the active substance of atrazine in 1000 liters of water and mix it per hectare.
To harvest sugarcane, first, measure with a hand refractometer. The harvesting of sugarcane should start as soon as the point of hand refractometer (manual rotation measured) reaches 18. Sugarcane ripening can also be detected by the sweetness of sugarcane if the device is not there. When the sugarcane is ripe, its harvesting should be started.
Disease and prevention in diseases
There are many types of diseases in sugarcane, some of which are as follows –
- Colletotrichum falcatum
- Cephalosporium sekrai
- Ustilago Scitaminea
- Odontotermes obesus
- Holotrichia consanguinea
There are many types of medicines for the prevention of all these diseases, which you should put in your field on the opinion of experts.