Introduction to Operating system and its types

by Hussain

Today in this article we will tell you – what is the operating system? Thus, how does it work? Operating system and its types

A computer, laptop or any kind of mobile phone is run by mixing two types of parts. It consists of first part hardware and second part software. Both these types of parts are as important for computers as the brain and heart for the human body.

The hardware part is hard and is visible, the software part is not visible or in easy language, it is contained in the hardware itself. However, both these parts are also divided into many pieces. Out of these pieces, a part of the software is the operating system. It is connected to the software of the computer and works for the same.

Let us know that –

  1. What is the operating system?
  2. How operating system works?
  3. Types of operating system
  4. Benefits of operating system
  5. Disadvantages of operating system

What is operating system?

The operating system is a part of the software part of the computer. In easy language, it can be said that the entire software is based on this system. The presence of the operating system is so important for software that many people consider the operating system as software.

How operating system works?

Any command we give in a computer laptop or mobile phone first approaches the operating system and then gives the computer hardware the command to perform that task. Understand a command to know how the operating system works.

  • Suppose I want to print a page.
  • With the help of my keyboard, I will first select a file from the computer that I want to print.
  • After that this command will reach the operating system.
  • The operating system will approve this command.
  • After approval, the printer will be ordered to print and after that, it will print that paper.

In this example, it can be understood how the operating system works and what is the importance of the operating system to the computer.

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Operating system definition

“The operating system is a piece of the software part of a computer that establishes a connection between software, and hardware, and gives them commands to work”

Types of operating system

Operating systems are divided into several parts based on their ability to function and the ability to command. Following are the types of operating systems: –

  • Batch Operating system
  • time Sharing operating system
  • Distributed Operating system
  • Network operating system
  • Real-time operating system

1. Batch Operating system

This type of operating system does not directly contact the computer’s CPU, to do this it has different batches. Just as if there is a separate batch for the printer if there is a job from the printer, a separate batch for the scanner if there is a task from the scanner. It does this by dividing the work into pieces, these pieces can be called batch hence its name is the batch operating system.

Advantage of batch operating system

  • The time it takes to complete any task in a batch operating system can be anything.
  • Many users can run the batch system on their own.
  • The batch system is much faster in terms of time.
  • It is quite easy to manage large tasks in a batch system.

The disadvantage of batch operating system

  • Extreme efficiency is required to work with batch systems.
  • Debugging a batch system is much more difficult.
  • Sometimes it proves to be too expensive.
  • Batch is completed from the command line in the system ie there is no option of multi-tasking.

Example of the batch operating system: – Payroll system, bank statement.

2. time Sharing operating system

The time-sharing system is a type of multi-task system. This gives every task a chance to continue on its own. In easy language, it can be understood by example of a mobile phone. For example, in mobile phones, you can do everything from playing songs to playing games simultaneously. The time-sharing system works like this. The time in which any task is completed is called quantum.

Benefits Of time Sharing operating system) 

  • Each task is given equal time.
  • Chances of duplication of software are almost eliminated.
  • The workload of the CPU is greatly reduced.

The disadvantage of time Sharing operating system

  • In this, the problem of reliabilities is more than the limit.
  • Security has to be taken special care of. There is a risk of both data loss and theft.
  • There is a lot of communication problems in data.

3. Distributed Operating system

Such operating systems are also called remote systems in easy language. It performs the same function as the network but it acts through wires. In such a system many computers have connected that work together. All these computers can be accessed simultaneously.

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Advantages of Distributed operating system

  • Failure of any connected part will not make any difference to any other system. All these systems are independent and connected only to the main system.
  • Electronic mail between these systems increases the speed of data exchange.
  • There is not much load on the main system.
  • Work can be completed fairly quickly.
  • Networks can be connected to unlimited systems.

The disadvantage of a Distributed Operating System

  • After the main network fails, it will stop working at all.
  • The efficiency of using this system has not been developed yet.
  • Such systems are much more expensive and cannot be used easily.

Examples of distributed operating systems: – Local.

4. Network operating system

Such operating systems function almost exactly like distributed operating systems. But there is a difference between them that there used to be the main system but here every system can function in its own way. All these systems are connected to each other through the network and also share devices with each other such as printers, scanners.

Benefits Of network operating system

  • The servers in this system work much faster.
  • This type of system maintains security.
  • Despite having fewer hardware devices, it can be functioned in a haphazard manner.
  • Up to a range, the server can be operated without wires.

The disadvantage of network operating systems

  • Its servers are much more expensive.
  • The user has to depend on other systems for many tasks.
  • Their maintenance costs a lot of money.

Examples of network operating systems: – Microsoft Window Server 2003, Microsoft Window Server 2008, Unix, Linux, Mac, OS X, Novel Netware BSD.

5. Real-time operating system

The real-time operating system is a kind of fast operating system. It takes very little time to process any work. In real-time operating systems, the time interval is called response time.

Real-time systems are used in places where there is a lot of time constraints. For example, missile systems, air traffic control systems, and robots can be seen.


Types of Real-time operating system

  1. Hard real-time system: – Such a system is used when the time shortage is too much and the work has to be completed as quickly as possible.
  2. Soft real-time system: – Such a system is used when there is a shortage of time but not so much.

Advantages of real-time operating system

  • Any device can be used as much as you want.
  • In such a system, the time taken to shift the task is much less. It only takes 10 microseconds.
  • This attaches great importance to currently running applications.
  • Such systems are very small in size so they can be used on small servers as well.
  • Such servers are error free.
  • In this type of operating system, memory allocation is very strong, that is, memory is more than other systems.

The disadvantage of a real-time operating system

  • Very few tasks work together at the same time.
  • Such systems are much more expensive.
  • Algorithms of such systems are much more difficult. This kind of algorithm requires much more skill to understand.
  • It requires special device drivers.
  • Task switching is much more difficult in such systems.

Examples of Real Time-Sharing System: – Scientific Experiment, Medical Imaging System, Industrial Control System, Weapon System, Robot, Air Traffic Control System.


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