What is the Non-Cooperation Movement By Gandhi
Friends, today we will talk about the Non-Cooperation Movement and learn how the Non-Cooperation Movement proved helpful in India’s independence. Mahatma Gandhi entered Indian politics in 1916 as a hero. By 1919, he had emerged as the most important national leader.
His unique political ideas and talents stemmed from his spiritual belief that changed Indian politics and played an important role in awakening the political consciousness of the general public. Many of the movements he started playing an important role in uniting people to fight for India’s independence.
The Non-Cooperation Movement was the first of the three most important movements in the pursuit of India’s independence. The other two were the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement‘ and the ‘Quit India Movement’.
Today we will discuss it and learn about it, so let’s start with –
What was the reason for the non-cooperation movement
Mahatma Gandhi started the Non-Cooperation Movement on 1 August 1920 intending to oppose the ever-increasing excesses of the British Government. Because in 1919, the British Government passed a new rule called the Rowlatt Act, according to this Act, the British Government had the right to arrest people and without any trial on suspicion of anti-Raj activities. He had the power to keep in jails.
The government also took possession of newspapers and also retained the power to turn back from reporting and printing news. The resolution of the non-cooperation movement was passed at the Nagpur session of Congress to oppose it.
Its purpose was to end colonialism from India, and everyone was urged not to go to schools, colleges, and courts nor pay taxes. In short, everyone was asked to renounce all voluntary relations with the English government.
The Nagpur session of the Congress has a special significance in the attainment of independence because two more important decisions were taken in this session along with the confirmation of the proposal of non-cooperation. According to the first decision, Congress had abandoned its goal of self-government within the British Empire
According to the second decision, Congress prepared a list of creative programs which are as follows –
- Formation of Provincial Congress Committees based on language
- Make all adults a member of Congress
- Constitution of All India Congress Committee of three hundred members
- Promotion of indigenous handloom
- Establishment of National Schools and Panchayati Adalats
- End of untouchability, emphasis on Hindu-Muslim unity
- Use of Hindi as far as possible
The main programs in negative programs were as follows
- Returning Government titles citation
- Boycott of government schools, colleges, courts, foreign clothing, etc.
- Government festivals, celebrations, and promotion of Swadeshi
- Resignation from unpaid posts and nominated posts of local bodies.
- Boycott of foreign goods and the promotion of Swadeshi.
To reach the goal of Swaraj after the Nagpur session, the Congress now adopted all the peaceful and appropriate measures in place of constitutional measures which not only included sending applications and appeals, but also direct actions like refusing to pay taxes to the government. Was involved.
Gandhi started returning the Kaiser-e-Hind award he had received before starting the movement, hundreds of other people also renounced their titles and titles by following Gandhiji’s footprints. Jamnalal Bajaj, who was conferred with the title of Rai Bahadur, also returned this title to the British Government.
The non-cooperation movement was highly successful in Western India, Bengal and Northern India. Many educational institutions such as Kashi Vidyapeeth, Bihar Vidyapeeth, Banaras Vidyapeeth, Tilak Maharashtra Vidyapeeth, and Aligarh Muslim University, etc. were established for students to study.
Boycott of educational institutions
During the Non-Cooperation Movement, the highest opposition to educational institutions took place in Bengal. Subhash Chandra Bose became the Principal of National College Calcutta. Punjab was boycotted under the leadership of Lala Lajpat Rai.
Prominent among the lawyers who boycotted the advocacy were Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das of Bengal, Motilal Nehru and Jawaharlal Nehru of Uttar Pradesh, Vitthalbhai Patel and Vallabhbhai Patel of Gujarat, Rajendra Prasad of Bihar, Chakravarti Rajagopalachari of Madras and Asif Ali of Delhi, etc.
To meet the expenditure of the Non-Cooperation Movement on Gandhiji’s call, the Congress, in a program of non-cooperation, collected one crore rupees in the form of Swaraj Kosh for the Tilak Memorial at the Congress session held at Vijayawada on March 31, 1921, and about 20 in India. The program for distribution of lacquers was also included.
End of the Andolan
In 1921, the Non-Cooperation Movement was at its peak. The government made every effort to crush the non-cooperation movement. On March 4, 1921, 70 people died due to firing by soldiers at a gurdwara in Nankana, where the gathering was being conducted peacefully.
In 1921, when Lord Reading became Viceroy of India, there was an attempt to speed up the non-cooperation movement. Many leaders were arrested. Mohammad Ali was the first leader who was first arrested in the ‘Non-Cooperation Movement’.
Prince of Wales boycotted
When the Prince of Wales visited India in April 1921, he was greeted with a black flag everywhere. Gandhiji boycotted the arrival of the Prince of Wales due to the non-release of the Ali brothers.
Meanwhile, the Congress session was held in Ahmedabad in December 1921. There was a plan to intensify the Non-Cooperation Movement and to run the Civil Disobedience Movement.
The decision to end the movement
Meanwhile, on 5 February 1922, at a place called Chauri Chaura in Gorakhpur district, the police forcibly stopped a procession, as a result of which the public got angry and set fire to the police station, in which a police station and 21 soldiers died.
Gandhiji was stunned by this incident. After this incident of violence, Gandhiji immediately withdrew the movement. At the Congress meeting held in Bardoli on 12 February 1922, it was decided to end the non-cooperation movement and the movement ended.
At the time when the enthusiasm of the people was at its peak, the country was shocked by Gandhiji’s decision to withdraw the movement. Motilal Nehru, Subhash Chandra Bose, Jawaharlal Nehru, C. Rajagopalachari, CR Das, Ali Bandhu, etc. criticized Gandhi’s decision. The postponement of the movement had an impact on Gandhi’s popularity.
On 13 March 1922, Gandhiji was arrested and Judge Broome Field sentenced Gandhi to 6 years of imprisonment for the crime of instigating him. He was released on 5 February 1924 due to health reasons.
Result of the Non-Cooperation Movement
The Khilafat and non-cooperation movements proved effective in bringing Hindus and Muslims closer. Muslims invited Swami Shraddhanand, a staunch Arya Samaj leader, to deliver a speech from Jama Masjid. On the other hand, the Sikhs handed over the keys of the Golden Temple in Amritsar to the Muslim leader Dr. Kichlu.
This movement had a special effect. By now the British government had realized the power of Indians, and at the same time the British Government had agreed that it might have to leave India soon, this movement had shaken the foundation of the British Government.
If you see friends, this movement proved to be a milestone in the attainment of independence, due to which we got independence on August 15, 1949. The result of the cooperation given by the revolutionaries in the attainment of independence is that today we live in an independent India.